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Adjustment and Adjustment of China's Industrial Structure
Adjustment and Adjustment of China's Industrial Structure
Time: 2013-05-08 01:25:13 Website: China Metro Tendering Network
I. Changes in industrial structure since reform and opening up

Since 1978, China's economic aggregate has grown rapidly, and the national economy has developed rapidly. At the same time, great changes have taken place in the industrial structure. Some long-standing problems, such as uncoordinated proportional relations and imbalanced supply and demand, have been basically solved. Some new features emerge. Observing and analyzing the contradictions and problems in the industrial structure, and proposing new countermeasures for adjusting and optimizing the industrial structure, are a major topic to promote the sustained and rapid development of the national economy and practically change the mode of economic growth.

The changes in China's industrial structure since the reform and opening up can be divided into three stages.

The first stage, from 1978 to 1984, was a period when China's economy was recovered from the severe damage of the Cultural Revolution and the rural reform was in full swing.

The remarkable characteristic of the industrial structure change during this period is that the proportion of the primary industry in the gross national product has increased rapidly. In 1984, the proportion of the primary industry reached 32%, an increase of 4 percentage points from 28% in 1978. During the same period, the secondary industry fell by 5 percentage points, and the tertiary industry rose by only 1 percentage point. This shows that China's rural and agricultural reform has greatly liberated agricultural productivity and promoted the development of the primary industry, reflecting the tilt of resource allocation to the primary industry. As a result, the uncoordinated ratio of industry and agriculture has been greatly improved. In the process of industrialization, the rapid increase in the proportion of the primary industry is a peculiar phenomenon in China and is rare in the world. This is a temporary situation caused by the correction of the underdevelopment of the primary industry. During this period, the average annual growth rate of value added calculated at current prices, the primary industry reached 14.5%, exceeding the rate of 10% for secondary production and 12.7% for tertiary production. However, because this structural change is compensatory and temporary, the proportion of the primary industry has gradually decreased since 1985. During this period, the consumer goods industries, such as textile and light industry, also achieved great development and satisfied the market needs, but the heavy industry was undergoing adjustment, so the proportion of the secondary industry fell more.

The second stage, from 1985 to 1992, was a period of rapid development of China's non-agricultural industry.

The proportion of the tertiary industry rose from about 28% to about 34%, reaching the highest point in history. At the same time, the proportion of the secondary industry remained at about 43%, while that of the primary industry fell by 6 percentage points. The biggest feature of resource allocation during this period was the large-scale transfer of labor to the tertiary industry, which promoted the development of the tertiary industry. On the whole, the development of the tertiary industry during this period also has the characteristics of compensating for insufficient development and adjusting the proportional relationship. In the mid-1980s, China ’s GNP doubled from 1980. The development of agriculture and consumer goods industries has basically solved the problem of food and clothing for the people. At this time, the contradiction between employment pressure and insufficient development of the tertiary industry became increasingly prominent, and the allocation of social resources gradually shifted to the tertiary industry, which promoted the development of the tertiary industry. It is 20%, the secondary industry is 17%, and the primary industry is 14.5%. During this period, employment in the tertiary industry increased by 34 million, while the secondary industry increased by only 25 million. By 1994, the number of people employed in the tertiary industry also surpassed that in the secondary industry.

The third stage, from 1993 to 1996 and for some time to come, was the period when China's heavy chemical industry was dominated.

A significant feature of this period was the strengthening of infrastructure, including energy, transportation, and communications facilities, which caused the proportion of the secondary industry to rise rapidly by 6 percentage points. In 1996, the proportion of the primary industry dropped to 20%, the proportion of the secondary industry approached 49%, and the tertiary industry dropped to 31%. During this period, economic growth clearly has the characteristics of being dominated by the heavy chemical industry. Electric power, steel, machinery and equipment, automobiles, shipbuilding, chemicals, electronics, building materials and other industries have become the main driving force for the growth of the national economy. The internal reason is that the long-standing contradictions in the "bottleneck" constraints of the energy, transportation and communication industries are the most prominent. After more than ten years of rapid development, China has the strength to resolve the above contradictions. With the foundation of energy, transportation, and communications, The progress of facility construction has driven the demand for products such as electricity, transportation vehicles, building materials, steel, nonferrous metals, petrochemicals, machinery and electronics, and the construction industry, and has promoted the development of the secondary industry. During the Eighth Five-Year Plan period, the construction of energy, transportation, and communications infrastructure created the best level since the founding of the People's Republic of China, and accordingly led to the growth of the secondary industry. Compared with 1981-1991 and 1986-1991, the total industrial output value and construction industry output value increased faster from 1991 to 1995 (see the table below, unit:%)

1991-95 1986-91 1981-91

Gross industrial output value 22.2 17.6 15.7

Construction industry gross output value 13.0 11.6 9.4

During this period, the growth of China's heavy industry changed the situation that has been lower than the growth of light industry since the 1980s. This stage is not over yet, and it is expected to continue until the end of this century and the beginning of the next century. At present, the construction of energy and transportation infrastructure has achieved initial results. The "bottlenecks" that restrict the national economy have been alleviated, and the construction of information infrastructure is in the ascendant. Shows broad development prospects. During the "Ninth Five-Year Plan" or longer, the construction of energy, transportation and communication infrastructure, and the development of electronics, machinery, petrochemicals, building materials and other manufacturing industries promoted by them are one of the major growth points of China's economic development. .

Outstanding contradictions in China's industrial structure

In the past three years when China's economic development entered the "Ninth Five-Year Plan" period, the macro-control tasks of curbing inflation and achieving a balance in the aggregate have basically achieved the expected goals, and the economic operation has shown a good trend of "high growth and low inflation". At the same time, the structural contradictions in economic life are mainly the contradictions of the industrial structure.

(1) The agricultural foundation is still weak and the income of farmers is growing slowly.

In recent years, agriculture and the rural economy have developed rapidly, the output of major agricultural products such as grain has continued to increase, and agricultural infrastructure construction and production conditions have improved. However, on the whole, the foundation of agriculture is still weak, and its ability to resist natural disasters is not strong. Due to the low per capita arable land and surplus labor force, the comparative benefits of agricultural production are low, and farmers' income has grown slowly. This is a fundamental structural contradiction in the current national economy, which affects all aspects of economic life.

On the one hand, due to the low per capita arable land and low labor productivity in agriculture, as production costs continue to rise, farmers' income from planting cannot be increased, and it is still common to increase production without increasing income. Following the bumper grain harvest in 1996, summer grain production increased again in 1997. Although the state has adopted measures such as opening up grain purchases and implementing price protections to curb the decline in grain market prices, from a nationwide perspective, farmers' net income from increased grain production has not increased much. According to statistics, in 1997, the per capita net income of farmers nationwide increased by only 4.6% compared to 1996, which was lower than the growth rate of the previous two years.

On the other hand, the slow growth of farmers 'income has restricted farmers' ability to expand the purchase of consumer goods and means of production. In 1997, the consumption expenditure of farmers increased by 2.9% over the previous year. If the price factor was deducted, it would only increase by 0.4%. This is an issue that deserves high attention. The slow increase in farmers' income, which accounts for 70% of the total population and 55% of the total labor force, restricts the market for industry and services, and is not conducive to the smooth circulation of the national economy.

(2) The problem of insufficient infrastructure development is still quite prominent.

Significant progress has been made in infrastructure construction such as water conservancy, energy, transportation, and communications, and bottlenecks and constraints on the national economy have been significantly eased. Relatively loose conditions have also appeared in some regions. However, from the perspective of the whole country, the infrastructure such as water supply, power supply, transportation (especially urban transportation and long-distance transportation), and communications are still incomplete, and some areas have sharp contradictions. For example, water shortages in North China and Northwest China are severe, affecting industrial and agricultural production and people's lives. Of the more than 600 cities across the country, more than 300 are short of water and 108 are severely short of water. The high temperature in Beijing continued in the summer of 1997, and the load on electrical appliances such as air conditioners increased, which the existing power grid could not bear. Before the 1980s, the domestic residential electrical load did not consider electrical appliances such as air conditioners and microwave ovens. In the future, with the popularity of these electrical appliances, the task of transforming the power grid will become increasingly prominent. This is another structural contradiction in the national economy.

(3) The level of the processing industry is low and the effective market demand is insufficient.

China's processing industry not only has a low level of quality and efficiency, but also has a low level of per capita quantity. The scale of China's processing industry has expanded rapidly, and production capacity and output have also grown rapidly. Judging from the current supply and demand relationship, most products are oversupplied and production capacity cannot be fully utilized, but China's level is still low in terms of per capita output. According to statistics, with the exception of a few products such as cement, the per capita output of processed products in China is still lower than the world average, which is even wider than in developed countries. For example, for fiber (including natural and synthetic fibers), China ’s per capita is 6.54 kilograms, and the world ’s average is 7.45 kilograms; ethylene, China ’s per capita 2.46 kilograms, the world average is 12.34 kilograms; electricity, China ’s per capita 878 kilowatt-hours, and the world average 2220 kilowatt-hours. , The United States exceeds 12,000 kilowatt hours, Japan is 7260 kilowatt hours; refrigerators, China's average output of 75 units per 10,000 people, the world average of 96 units; color TV, China's average output of 172 units per 10,000 people, the world average level of 194 units. The imbalance between the current production capacity and the effective demand that can be achieved is another prominent structural contradiction. In the long run, China's industrial product market still has great potential. How to tap this market potential is an urgent task we face.

4. The development of the tertiary industry is relatively lagging.

China's tertiary industry has played its role as the main channel in employment. In 1996, the number of new employees in the tertiary industry increased by 10.5 million, while the secondary industry increased by only 5.5 million and the primary industry decreased by 7 million. However, the proportion of the added value of the tertiary industry to the gross national product has always been unsatisfactory, and currently it is only a little over 30%. The investment in the tertiary industry is small and the effect is rapid. In recent years, it has been encouraged and supported by governments at all levels, especially local governments. Institutional and policy obstacles have been gradually overcome, but the output value created by it has not grown fast enough, and the proportion of increase has not been large enough. . At present, the proportion of the value added of the tertiary industry to the GDP is about 50% in the world, 60-70% in developed countries, and more than 40% in developing countries. China's proportion of tertiary industry is too low. One of the few countries. The deep-seated reasons for this contradiction need to be further studied and revealed.

Of course, there are still many contradictions in terms of technical structure, corporate organizational structure, and regional industrial structure. But the most prominent in the industrial structure is the above four contradictions. Only by carefully studying and analyzing these contradictions, and proposing solutions and countermeasures to resolve them, can China's industrial structure be adjusted and optimized to make greater progress.

Third, the strategic choice of industrial structure adjustment

(I) Analysis of the Causes of the Three Industrial Structure Contradictions

1. The crux of the contradiction in the primary industry lies in the relative shortage of cultivated land, water and other resources and the severe surplus of labor.

China's per capita arable land and water resources are below the world average. There is a large surplus of labor in agriculture, and a large number of newly-growing labor will be employed every year in the future. This makes us face a difficult problem. Due to the shortage of resources, we must continuously improve the utilization efficiency of resources. This requires a lot of investment, including the construction of water conservancy facilities, investment in machinery and equipment, power, fertilizers, and pesticides. This makes the cost of agricultural products keep rising, and the surplus labor force makes it difficult to increase agricultural labor productivity per capita. Rising costs and low labor productivity make it difficult to increase the net income of agricultural production. The phenomenon of "increasing production without increasing income", "large agricultural counties, and poor financial counties" is still very serious and has become a key issue for the further development of agriculture. Over the years, measures taken to increase the prices of agricultural products such as grain and cotton, and "subsidize agriculture with work" have played a role in promoting agricultural development. But when the price of major agricultural products approaches the price of international markets, we are faced with new policy options. In addition to continuing to increase investment in agriculture, especially in science and technology, new paths need to be opened and new measures taken.

2. The root cause of the contradiction of large supply capacity and relatively insufficient demand in the secondary industry is that there are many farmers and low income.

The main industrial products and housing per capita in China are low in the world and have potential for development. However, due to the low level of farmers' income, the commodities currently popular in cities do not have the ability to purchase them in rural areas.

3. The reasons for the low proportion of the tertiary industry include the underdeveloped infrastructure such as transportation, but the most fundamental reason is the degree of urbanization in China, which is not compatible with the degree of economic development.

Historically, due to the division of industry and agriculture, there is a large gap between urban and rural areas. Since the reform and opening up, in order to avoid the rapid expansion of the urban population, measures have been taken to leave the country without leaving the country and transfer agricultural labor in situ. The development of township and village enterprises in the majority of rural areas has led to a departure from a large reduction in rural population and industrial population in the industrialized world. A sharp increase in roads (some peasants went to work in cities and did not settle down in the cities, which basically also belonged to the land without leaving the country). This has played a good role in stabilizing the economy and social order, but at the same time it has also caused a new problem of occupying a large amount of cultivated land and restricting the synchronous development of the tertiary industry.

Practice has proved that industrial enterprises and residential areas are too scattered, and it is difficult to produce agglomeration effects, and it is difficult to develop the tertiary industry in Chengxing. In township and village enterprises, farmers have switched from farming to working, but the lifestyle has not changed, and there has been no corresponding development in business, services, health, culture, sports and other undertakings. Some peasants work in cities, and their lives have remained relatively monotonous. Their families stay in the countryside, and they have not put forth demand for the tertiary industry. In 1995, the urban areas of 640 cities in China had a population of 500 million, of which 200 million were non-agricultural. Its land area is only 17.4% of the country, but the added value of the tertiary industry accounts for 79% of the country. Passenger traffic accounted for 76%, freight traffic accounted for 65%, total post and telecommunications business accounted for 77.5%, electricity consumption accounted for 71.6%, social consumption retail accounted for 72%, commercial and restaurant outlets accounted for 52.7%, and beds in health institutions accounted for 64.6% The balance of residents' savings deposits accounted for 68%, and cultural and sports facilities were mainly concentrated in urban areas. Statistical analysis shows that in the 18 years since 1978, every time China ’s agricultural labor force transferred one labor force to the secondary industry, only 0.7 people were transferred to the tertiary industry; while countries with simultaneous industrialization and urbanization shifted to the secondary industry. One labor force can transfer two labor forces to the tertiary industry. In a strict sense, during the period from 1985 to 1992, the development of the tertiary industry mainly solved the problem of the relative lag of the tertiary industry in the existing cities. During this period, the tertiary industry became a resettlement city for employment and solved the surplus of enterprises and institutions. Personnel, the main way to increase unit and personal income. Companies, shops, and restaurants have sprung up, and a large number of farmers have also entered the city to join the tertiary industry. Individual traders, shops, restaurants, and households employ a large number of migrant workers. The sanitation, tired, and hard work such as environmental sanitation and repair are basically performed by farmers Work down. In a sense, farmers have made significant contributions to the development of the city's tertiary industry, but due to the system and other reasons, they have not shared more of the achievements of the tertiary industry created by the development of modern civilization.

The relatively lagging development of cities and towns has another major impact, which is the excessive use of residential land by residents. According to the statistics of the land administration department, the land occupied by urban residents in China is nearly 40 million mu, and the per capita land area is 75 square meters. The residential land for rural residents is close to 250 million mu, and the land occupied per capita is nearly 200 square meters. Xiaokunshan Town, Songjiang County, Shanghai, adopts the policy of “concentration of industry to parks, residents to market towns, and cultivated land to large-scale operation and development”. The house site of 1780 residents can be reduced from 1045 mu to 212 mu, an 80% reduction. The village and town planning of Jiangsu Province shows that if the current villages are properly concentrated in the central villages and grass-roots villages, 3 million mu of cultivated land can be reclaimed. Therefore, the planned development of cities and towns according to the conditions and the guidance of farmers to live in concentrated areas can not only accelerate the development of the tertiary industry, but also play a very important role in saving land.

(II) Key choices for industrial structure adjustment and optimization

1. Since the reform and opening up, in the adjustment of the industrial structure, China has successively solved the contradictions of insufficient supply of agriculture, the tertiary industry, and energy, transportation, and communications infrastructure left over from history. The resolution of these three contradictions is the strategic direction to drive The growth of the national economy, the promotion of foreign economic and technological exchanges, and the promotion of the overall development of the national economy. The national economic plan and industrial policy formulated to resolve these three contradictions, and adopted measures to strengthen the development of these industries, tilted the allocation of resources to the "bottleneck" sector, and made great progress in adjusting the industrial structure. The serious imbalance of industrial proportions has been basically resolved, and the contradiction of the "bottleneck" industry restricting the development of the national economy has been greatly alleviated. It is foreseeable that in the near future, the goal is to solve the insufficient supply capacity of the industry and balance the industrial proportion relationship. The structural adjustment will be successfully completed. In the future, in order to further promote the development of the national economy, it is necessary to adjust and optimize the industrial structure based on market demand and market competition as the driving force. Correspondingly, industrial policy should also shift from developing industrial supply capacity in an inclined manner to developing markets, creating and nurturing demand, and guiding industrial adjustment and optimization through the market.

2. In addition to the relative shortage of per capita cultivated land and water resources in China, the per capita possession of some mineral resources is also relatively insufficient. With the increasing economic aggregate, the contradiction of excessive resource consumption has become increasingly prominent. Therefore, at the current stage, the transformation of China's economic growth mode should take the conservation of resources and increase the utilization of resources as the basic tasks. In the adjustment of industrial structure, industry structure, and product structure, we must vigorously save land, water, materials, and energy, and save products that consume more natural resources, such as food, electricity, steel, fuel, and chemical products. It is necessary to promote the economic benefits of various industries by saving resources.

3. The focus and strategic direction of China's industrial structure adjustment and optimization should be placed on the "three rural" issues, namely, the rural economy, agriculture, and farmers. The reasons are:

——Of the three industries, the primary industry is still the industry with the weakest foundation, but also the industry with the highest risks and the worst comparative benefits. In addition, China's per capita arable land and water resources are relatively small, and the development of agriculture is facing a series of difficult problems such as increasing investment, improving efficiency, and adjusting the structure. In the long-term development of the national economy, always putting agriculture first is a policy that China must firmly grasp.

——The demand for rural consumer industrial consumer goods is too small, which is the main reason for the oversupply of industrial products in China. The demand of rural residents for industrial products is mainly concentrated on agricultural production materials and some building materials, industrial consumer goods, especially household appliances, etc. Due to the low purchasing power of rural residents, the market has not yet opened.

How to develop the rural market's demand for the secondary industry, especially industrial consumer goods, is the key to the continued development of the secondary industry in China. Otherwise, it will be difficult for China to get out of the processing industry of urban enterprises, foreign-funded enterprises and township enterprises, but the market is only export and urban. Developing the rural economy and increasing farmers' income are the fundamental ways to open up the industrial product market. At present, some products that have been saturated in China's cities are far from widespread in rural households. As long as the purchasing power in rural areas increases, existing products are marketable.

-Eliminating the urban-rural divide is not only a problem that our modernization must address, but also an internal driving force for economic development. With the change of the rural landscape, the demand for energy, transportation and communication infrastructure construction, the demand for municipal utilities including roads, water supply, fuel gas, power supply, business services, and cultural, health, sports Demand will become a powerful driving force for the growth of the national economy. At the same time, with the development of these undertakings, the development of industrial and agricultural production and the continuous improvement of technological level will be further promoted, creating more national wealth.

In short, carrying out all-round structural adjustment around the rural economy, agriculture, and farmers is a strategic choice for achieving sustained national economic growth and structural optimization.

(III) Paths and links of industrial structure adjustment

1. Promoting agricultural industrialization and accelerating the construction of small towns are the only way to gradually complete the historic task of transferring agricultural labor to non-agricultural industries.

By advancing the close combination of agriculture, processing industry and distribution industry, it will fundamentally change the disadvantaged position of agriculture and accelerate the pace of agricultural modernization. Promote the development of township and tertiary industries through the construction of small towns, and further prosper the rural economy.

2. Continuing to promote the construction of energy, transportation and communications infrastructure is an important foundation for realizing China's modernization in stages.

The improvement and continuous improvement of the three types of infrastructure are the main basis for the improvement of a country's comprehensive national strength and an important symbol of the degree of modernization. Therefore, in any country, no matter what stage of its economic development, the construction of three types of infrastructure is the focus of government economic development plans and policies. It is only at different stages of development that there are different goals and tasks in the construction of the three types of infrastructure. For example, in Japan's previous long-term plans, the satisfaction and security of residents' power supply and the time for residents to reach major transportation lines have been taken as important goals of the plan. The US government has formulated a long-term policy on energy security and security from supply, production and technology development. In order to expand the diversification of energy supply, since the 1990s, the US government has allocated 7 billion U.S. dollars to develop technologies that make full use of coal resources and reduce environmental pollution, such as coal liquefaction, coal gasification combined cycle power generation, and circulating fluidized bed power generation. After the test of the industrial demonstration plant, the clean power generation and thermal efficiency of coal have reached a very high level. For the development of coalbed methane and wind power, the government grants preferential tax policies to promote large-scale development and commercial production.

Since the beginning of the 1990s, the construction of information infrastructure proposed by some countries is also a measure to improve the national infrastructure capacity and technology level under new scientific and technological conditions.

Promoting economic growth with infrastructure construction as the driving force. As a common practice in various countries, the reasons are as follows: First, infrastructure construction has a strong demand-oriented role, and it will generate great demand for the development of manufacturing and construction industries. Second, the improvement of infrastructure is a necessary condition for the development of many industries. For example, the development of highways for the automobile manufacturing industry and the development of large passenger aircraft for the development of multinational tourism are all necessary conditions. Therefore, continuously promoting the construction of energy, transportation and communication infrastructure is not only an important task of China's modernization, but also an effective way to promote economic growth.

3. Speeding up the structural adjustment and optimization of industrial products is an effective way to achieve resource conservation and upgrading of industrial technology.

At present, the production capacity of China's major industrial products is already large, but in general, there are still low technological levels, excessive energy and material consumption in product production and use, poor product quality, and low scale benefits of product production. The market competitiveness of products is weak and the environmental pollution caused is serious.

The fundamental way to change this situation is to take market demand as the direction and market competition as the driving force. Through technological transformation, technological innovation, and adjustment of the organizational structure of enterprises, the product structure of various industrial sectors can be carried out in a targeted and targeted manner. Tuning and optimization. In the adjustment of product structure, the following aspects have the greatest impact on the development of the national economy:

-Reduce energy consumption, raw material consumption, and water consumption of products by promoting new technologies and processes. Produce a batch of products that can reduce energy, raw material and water consumption in industry, agriculture, and transportation.

——Through the use of new technologies and expansion of economic scale, improve product quality, reduce product costs, increase competitiveness in domestic and foreign markets, and expand market share.

——Through technological innovation and technology introduction, develop products that have the world's advanced level and can represent the direction of industrial development.

Starting from the reality that China's current economic level still varies greatly between regions, industries, and urban and rural areas, the technological advancement and economies of scale requirements of each region and industry cannot be one size fits all, but must be tailored to local conditions, adopting advanced applicable technologies and appropriate economic scale. Gradually improve in development.

4. Vigorously develop the tertiary industry, absorb a large number of labor employment, and the necessary link for the adjustment of the entire industrial structure.

At present, the tertiary industry has become the main channel for absorbing labor employment. Both the conventional tertiary industry and the emerging tertiary industry have broad development prospects. It will be a major area for China to absorb newly-growing labor and transfer agricultural labor for a long time to come. Therefore, it is of great strategic significance to vigorously develop the tertiary industry.

The development of the tertiary industry has different tasks in urban and rural areas. At present, urban commerce and catering services have developed a lot. In the future, we should focus on developing leisure and fitness industries that use leisure time, such as tourism, culture, and sports; developing information service industries that use modern information technology; developing consulting services that provide professional knowledge services such as law, technology, finance, and investment; and real estate development Industry, etc.

The rural areas should adapt to local conditions and combine the industrialization of agriculture with the construction of small towns to develop tertiary industries that meet the needs of farmers, such as commercial circulation, transportation, and catering services.

Fourth, the main direction of industrial structure adjustment

The report of the 15th National Congress of the Communist Party of China states that for the strategic adjustment of the economic structure, "according to the state of economic development of our country, we must fully consider the trend of accelerated development of world science and technology and accelerated restructuring of the international economic structure, with a view to comprehensively improving the overall quality and efficiency of the national economy. Enhance comprehensive national strength and international competitiveness. " Specifically, the industrial structure adjustment direction determined by the 15th CPC National Congress is:

(1) Persist in putting agriculture first in economic work, ensure the development of agriculture and rural economy, and increase farmers' income.

The report of the 15th National Congress of the Party reiterated the Party's basic policies in rural areas and various measures to support agricultural and rural economic development. At the same time, new tasks have been proposed for the adjustment of the rural economic structure, mainly "actively developing agricultural industrialization management, forming an organic combination of production, processing, and sales and mutual promotion mechanisms to promote the transformation of agriculture to commercialization, specialization, and modernization." . It also proposed "doing a good job in planning and construction of small towns." This is an important policy put forward by the Party Central Committee for rural work.

Agricultural industrialization is the direction for further development of agricultural production areas. Taking Jilin and Heilongjiang as examples, these two provinces are both major agricultural provinces and large grain producing provinces in China. In 1996, the grain output of the two provinces accounted for one-tenth of the national total. For many years, "large grain provinces, small industrial provinces, and poor fiscal provinces" have been trapped in the two provinces. Now through the development of grain processing and follow-up industries, a new path for agricultural industrialization has been opened up, which has brought vitality and hope to the development of the province.

The construction of small towns is a joint part of the adjustment of urban and rural economic structure. The level of urbanization in China is currently less than 30%, which is also low in the world. The current world average is 50%, and in developed countries it is over 70%. Actively and steadily doing a good job in the planning and construction of small towns, and walking out of an urbanization road in line with China's national conditions is also an important task we face. The agricultural industrialization management, the adjustment of the layout of township and village enterprises, and the planning and construction of small towns are well combined, which will not only greatly promote the development of rural economy, but also further promote the economic exchange between urban and rural areas. Impact. Small towns have developed. The development of rural commercial service industry, transportation industry, communication industry, education, health, culture and sports will all have support and basic conditions. This has a great effect on fundamentally changing the appearance of the countryside and creating a prosperous and civilized new countryside.

There is also an important task for the development of agriculture and rural economy, which is to strengthen the construction of agricultural infrastructure and ecological environment, to fundamentally reverse the situation of relying on the sky to control the trend of deterioration of the ecological environment. It is necessary to increase the intensity of forestry construction and speed up afforestation, especially soil and water conservation and integrated watershed management in the middle and upper reaches of the river.

(2) Continue to strengthen infrastructure construction and promote informatization of the national economy.

Infrastructure such as energy, transportation, and communications is an important indicator of the overall quality and comprehensive national strength of the national economy and an important symbol of the degree of modernization. It is the focus of government planning and support under the conditions of a market economy. It is also an electronic, mechanical, new material, and The main fields of comprehensive use of high-tech such as new energy. The improvement of infrastructure not only creates conditions for the use of automobiles, aircraft, ships, telephones, and computers, but also provides a market for the development of a series of industries. Therefore, in accordance with the needs of the development of the national economy for infrastructure, continuously improving various infrastructures is an important task for adjusting and optimizing the industrial structure.

For power facilities, it is necessary to further strengthen the transformation of the power grid, reduce grid losses, improve the safety and economics of grid operation, gradually eliminate small units with high energy consumption and large pollution, and develop high-power units. For transportation and communication, we must improve the network, further tap the potential, and improve its benefits.

(3) Strengthen the adjustment and transformation of the processing industry, revitalize the pillar industries, and actively cultivate new economic growth points.

At present, the production capacity of the processing industry is already very large, but the quality and grade of many products are still not suitable for market needs. The production of products is high in cost and lacks competitiveness due to their small scale, high consumption, and high employment. Therefore, the report of the 15th National Congress of the Communist Party of China clearly proposed to increase the intensity of adjustment and transformation of the processing industry. The direction of adjustment can include the following aspects:

First, to adapt to changes in the consumption structure of urban and rural residents, develop and produce marketable industrial consumer goods.

Food, textiles, light industry, electronics, machinery, chemicals, building materials, medicine, etc., must be targeted to develop and produce products that meet different consumption levels and different consumer needs in accordance with market demand. At present, due to changes in income levels and structure, consumer demand is diversified. Now the market has both the demand for high-end brand-name products and the demand for quality and cheap products. Only market-oriented and careful study of demand can produce marketable products.

In recent years, Shenzhen Konka Electronics Group has seriously studied the demand for color TVs in the rural market, adjusted the functions and prices of 49 cm color TVs, removed high-end features that are not needed in rural areas such as international circuits, surround sound and heavy bass, and reduced sales of color TV Price, one only sells for about 1800 yuan, opened the rural market, sales are very good. This is a thought-provoking example.

Second, adapt to the diversified international market and promote the export of mechanical and electrical textile products to earn foreign exchange.

This year, China's import and export surplus is large, and it is expected to reach more than 35 billion U.S. dollars for the whole year. In the future, in addition to the need to increase exports of high-tech products, in export, we must turn to quality and market diversification, and avoid trade frictions that simply increase the number and single market. Light textile products should change from the current increase in quantity to mainly rely on improving product quality and improving the unit's ability to earn foreign exchange. In 1995, the amount of foreign exchange earned per ton of fiber products in China was only US $ 10,000. If it was raised to US $ 15,000, it would be possible to increase exports and earn foreign exchange without increasing the amount. Mechanical and electrical products must take measures to expand the export of complete sets of equipment.

Third, adopt advanced technology and strive to develop heavy chemical products and light industrial raw material products.

Large-scale complete sets of equipment, precision machinery, synthetic materials, organic chemical raw materials, and pulp and other products are widely used in the national economy and in high demand, but China's production capacity is still insufficient. The current imports are mainly these types of products. Therefore, through the reconstruction and expansion of existing enterprises, it is very promising to tap potential and increase energy. Doing this work carefully will have a significant impact on the adjustment and optimization of China's industrial structure. In this regard, the state has made plans and deployments, such as the transformation of hydrothermal power generation equipment manufacturing enterprises, the construction of petrochemical bases, and the construction of large-scale paper industry bases.

Fourth, we must improve the structure of raw materials and products by focusing on energy conservation, consumption reduction, quality improvement and variety addition.

At present, the production capacity of steel, cement, chemical and other products is relatively large. The key is that the variety structure is unreasonable, the production consumes large energy, and the product quality is poor. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the technological progress of the raw material industry, adjust the product structure, reduce energy consumption, improve quality, reduce pollution, and save water and land.

Fifth, we must highlight the key points and develop a number of high-tech industries and products.

According to market needs, choose the right direction, through the introduction of technology and independent development. In the fields of electronic information, new materials, biological engineering, new energy, energy conservation and environmental protection, aerospace, etc., develop a number of new industries that are urgently needed in the market and within their ability.

(4) Encourage and guide the rapid development of the tertiary industry.

The development of tourism, real estate and living services has a very good momentum and can be accelerated in the future. Information, consulting, technology, culture, sports and other industries have also begun to embark on the road to industrialization, and the prospects for development are good.

(5) Promote the rational distribution and coordinated development of the regional economy.

Since the implementation of the Ninth Five-Year Plan, new changes have taken place in the regional economy and industrial structure.从1996年的情况看,东部沿海地区继续发展,西部地区与全国保持同步发展的速度,中部地区的发展超过全国平均发展速度。尤其是长江经济带,中部五省等地区,发展更快一点。这与国家加强对中西部地区支持的力度,加快了一批能源、交通、水利等基础设施和资源开发项目的建设,有很大关系,也是各地发挥优势的结果。 1996年和1997年,中西部地区基建投资的增长速度,超过全国平均增长速度。 1997年,西部投资的增长速度最快。这说明,投资结构变动是向中西部地区倾斜的。按照十五大报告重申的促进地区经济合理布局和协调发展的要求,各地区在全国的统一规划和政策下,选准自身位置,明确努力的方向,地区结构的改善将会出现新的面貌。

五、产业结构调整的基本原则

十五大报告指出,经济结构调整和优化总的原则是:以市场为导向,使社会生产适应国内外市场需求的变化;依靠科技进步,促进产业结构优化;发挥各地优势,推动区域经济协调发展;转变经济增长方式,改变高投入、低产出,高消耗、低效益的状况。在研究和制定产业结构调整和优化的规划与方案时,要努力贯彻这些原则。

(一)遵循市场经济的规律,以市场为导向,发挥市场配置资源的基础作用。

当前的产业结构调整和优化,是在发展社会主义市场经济条件下进行的。因此,在进行结构调整和优化时,要在国家宏观调控和政策的指导下,发挥市场配置资源的基础作用。要从国内外市场需求出发,在市场竞争中进行结构调整和优化。竞争性产业的调整要在国家产业政策指导下,由市场调节。基础性产业,也要引进市场机制,面向市场需求。

要深化改革,推动政企分开和企业转换经营机制,使企业成为适应市场的法人实体和竞争主体,也就是成为结构调整的主体。进一步明确政府和企业权利和责任。企业依法经营,自负盈亏,承担在市场竞争中的责任和义务。政府主要是制定结构调整的规划,引导企业发展,制定产业政策和法规,规范企业行为和市场行为,为企业创造平等竞争的外部环境和政策保障。

要进一步深化投资体制改革,主要包括:培育和发展多元化投资主体,形成多种形式的投资渠道。明确和界定国家出资人和投资机构,发展国有资本的多种经营形式。采取多种方式,包括直接融资,充实国有企业资本金。

(二)把产业结构调整与国有企业发展、国有资产的重组结合起来。

打破条块分割,以资本为纽带,通过市场形成具有较强竞争力、产品真正适应国内外市场需求的跨地区、跨部门、跨所有制和跨国经营的大企业集团。采取改组、联合、兼并、租赁、承包经营和股份合作制、出售等形式,放开搞活国有小型企业。对国有大中型企业实行规范的公司制改革,使国有企业的资产结构更加符合经济结构调整和优化的需要。要根据不同行业的特点,形成合理的企业组织结构。需要集中经营的,要按规模经济的要求,调整企业组织结构,实行规模经营。需要专业化分工的,要按专业化的要求,促进企业组织结构的合理化。

(三)要把产业结构调整和科技进步、转变经济增长方式结合起来。

这次产业结构调整,正面临世界科学技术加快发展的时机。特别是信息技术和生物技术,对改变产业和经济的面貌将产生带根本性的影响。要不失时机地跟踪和了解这些技术发展趋势。根据实际需求,适时引进和开发这些技术。最近,江泽民总书记在访问美国期间,宣布我国将参加《信息技术协议》。该协议是世贸组织成立后于1997年3月达成的第一个重要协议,该协议主要内容,是参加方在计算机、电信设备、半导体生产设备、软件和科学仪器等六类信息产品的进口时,按一定期限把关税降为零。这对于我国既是一个机遇,也是一个挑战,需要认真对待,趋利避害,推动我国产业结构的升级。

(四)要把产业结构调整和优化与各项配套改革结合起来。

国有资产管理体制的改革,投融资体制的改革,金融体制包括银行、证券、保险体制的改革,住房制度改革等,都要与产业结构调整有机结合。产业结构的调整和优化,必然带来大量职工岗位的调整,人员的流动和职工下岗再就业是难以避免的,是结构调整中必然遇到的问题。因此,加快养老、失业、医疗保险和社会救济等制度的建设和完善,为在结构调整中流动和下岗职工提供最基本的社会保障,是顺利地推进经济结构调整和优化的重要措施。

(五)要从实际出发因地制宜地提出调整规划和方案。

由于我国各地经济发展的水平不同,所面临的矛盾和问题不同。因此,各地区在产业结构调整中,重点和任务也会存在不同的差别。需要从各地的实际出发,深入研究本地区的问题,充分考虑本地区的需要和可能,确定本地区调整的规划和方案。无论是产业的调整,技术的选择,还是企业的改组,都不能搞一刀切,搞一哄而起。

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